Periodontal disease is a leading cause of tooth loss and may be associated with other chronic diseases including diabetes and heart disease.
Types of Gum Disease:
Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease, which can caused by inadequate home care. The disease can also be attributed to factors like diabetes, smoking, aging, genetic predisposition, systemic diseases and conditions, stress, inadequate nutrition, puberty, hormonal fluctuations, pregnancy, substance abuse, HIV infection, and certain medications.
Signs of gingivitis include the gums becoming red, swollen, and bleeding easily. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good oral hygiene.
Periodontitis is basically untreated gingivitis. Over time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. The gums then separate from the teeth, forming pockets between the teeth and the gums. These pockets become infected, deepen, and eventually destroy the bone. The teeth can become loose and may have to be removed eventually.
Common forms of periodontitis:
Aggressive periodontitis occurs in patients that are otherwise clinically healthy. Common symptoms include rapid attachment, bone destruction, and familial aggregation.
Chronic periodontitis is inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth that causes progressive attachment and bone loss.
Necrotizing periodontal disease is an infection characterized by necrosis of gingival tissues, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. These lesions are most commonly observed in individuals with systemic conditions such as HIV infection, malnutrition, and immunosuppression.Browse Full Glossary